Pierre-Noël Giraud, born in 1949, graduated from École Polytechnique, École des Mines and Université de la Sorbonne. In 1978, he set up and headed the CERNA (Research centre in industrial economics) at Mines ParisTech. He is now Professor of Economics at Mines ParisTech and Dauphine PSL Research Universoty. He is member of the French Academy of Technologies, and of the Scientific Council of Orange He is also member of the board of Areva NC.. His research work has first dealt with the economics of commodities, in particular energy, and environmental economics. For more twenty years, he has also worked on the globalization of firms and its macroeconomic and political consequences, then on global finance and on urbanization in the emerging countries. He has written seven books and many articles on these topics.